EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT (ETP)
‘‘Total Envirotech Solutions’’ offers & supplies package & conventional type ETP and tailor made designed ETP to cater the need of manufacturing industry as well as domestic and corporate segment. We design, engineer, fabricate, install and commission the entire system in such way that this complies to all the environmental standards to satisfy the nature as well as rules and regulation laid by pollution control board. We use all the reputed make components and bought out items while manufacturing the system to ensure best results and optimum life. The compact and best aesthetics adds value to the product
Sewage is created by residential, institutional, and commercial and industrial establishments and includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks and so forth that is disposed of via sewers. In many areas, sewage also includes liquid waste from industry and commerce. The separation and draining of household waste into greywater and black water is becoming more common in the developed world, with greywater being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets.
Wastewater treatment generally involves three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary treatment.
Pre-treatment removes materials that can be easily collected from the raw waste water before they damage or clog the pumps and skimmers of primary treatment clarifiers (trash, tree limbs, leaves, etc.).
Screening: The influent sewage water is screened to remove all large objects carried in the sewage stream.  This is most commonly done with an automated mechanically raked bar screen in modern plants serving large populations, whilst in smaller or less modern plants a manually cleaned screen may be used. The raking action of a mechanical bar screen is typically paced according to the accumulation on the bar screens and/or flow rate. The solids are collected and later disposed in a landfill or incinerated. Bar screens or mesh screens of varying sizes may be used to optimize solids removal. If gross solids are not removed they become entrained in pipes and moving parts of the treatment plant and can cause substantial damage and inefficiency in the process.
Grit Removal: Pre-treatment may include a sand or grit channel or chamber where the velocity of the incoming wastewater is adjusted to allow the settlement of sand, grit, stones, and broken glass. These particles are removed because they may damage pumps and other equipment. For small sanitary sewer systems, the grit chambers may not be necessary, but grit removal is desirable at larger plants.
- Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil, grease and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment.
- Secondary treatment removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. Secondary treatment is typically performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Secondary treatment may require a separation process to remove the micro-organisms from the treated water prior to discharge or tertiary treatment.
- Tertiary treatment is sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary treatment in order to allow rejection into a highly sensitive or fragile ecosystem (estuaries, low-flow rivers, coral reefs). Treated water is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically (for example, by lagoons and microfiltration) prior to discharge into a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland, or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf course, green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes.
Some of the common treatment methods:
- In general, activated sludge plants encompass a variety of mechanisms and processes that use dissolved oxygen to promote the growth of biological floc that substantially removes organic material.
- The process traps particulate material and can, under ideal conditions, convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrate and ultimately to nitrogen gas
- Anaerobic digestion is a bacterial process that is carried out in the absence of oxygen. The process can either be thermophilic digestion, in which sludge is fermented in tanks at a temperature of 55°C, or mesophilic, at a temperature of around 36°C. Though allowing shorter retention time (and thus smaller tanks), thermophilic digestion is more expensive in terms of energy consumption for heating the sludge.
- Anaerobic digestion is the most common (mesophilic) treatment of domestic sewage in septic tanks, which normally retain the sewage from one day to two days, reducing the BOD by about 35 to 40 percent. This reduction can be increased with a combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatment by installing Aerobic Treatment Units (ATUs) in the septic tank.
- One major feature of anaerobic digestion is the production of biogas (with the most useful component being methane), which can be used in generators for electricity production and/or in boilers for heating purposes.
- Aerobic digestion is a bacterial process occurring in the presence of oxygen. Under aerobic conditions, bacteria rapidly consume organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide. The operating costs used to be characteristically much greater for aerobic digestion because of the energy used by the blowers, pumps and motors needed to add oxygen to the process. Aerobic digestion can also be achieved by using diffuser systems or jet aerators to oxidize the sludge
Advantages of the STP & ETP system:
- Planning, funding and lead times are shorter
- Eliminates the long distance transport of wastewater to treatment plants and purified water back to the point of origin
- Quicker implementation (design/installation/construction)
- Localization of treatment and dispersal
- Recycles wastewater, recharging groundwater within the watershed
- Less energy and chemical use
- Can be easily integrated into watershed management plans
- Capacity is added only when needed
- Reduces water consumption and wastewater discharge significantly
- Small unobtrusive installations
- Little or no odor emissions
- Groundwater recharge
- Increased awareness of land sensitivity to natural cycles
- Flow Range:1.0 m3/hr to 100 m3/hr Applications:
- Paper, Chemicals, Laboratories & Textiles Effluents
- Pharmaceuticals, Food- Beverages & Breweries & Cosmetic industrial Effluents
- Auto, Electroplating & other industrial effluents
- Domestic Sewage such as municipal or from Housing societies along with corporate parks
- Hotels and Hospital Sewage
- Recycling of Water from sewage and industrial waste. .